鸿运99开户: Xinhua Headlines: Strategic misjudgments, military interventions doom U.S. "war on terror" after 9/11

Source: Xinhua| 2021-09-11 21:52:40|Editor: huaxia
本文来源:http://www.ssb09.com/www_dushe_net/

网上百家乐登入,他们做年度计划时甚至比中国同事还较劲儿。  北京晨报讯(记者姜樊实习生纪婉莹)P2P监管细则已经初现成效。  图2:中日两国经济总量与信用创造在全球占比的变化另外,3DXpoint闪存还可以做成DRAM,号称可比传统DDR内存提供最多4倍的高容量、最低1/2的成本,但它的进度比Optane硬盘还要慢。

来源标题:昨日(11月30日)上午市场传闻联通混改方案已经落定,下午联通就发布澄清公告称方案还在讨论。A股历史上,去年上市的新股暴风集团(原名暴风科技)、乐凯新材曾创下连续29个一字板的历史纪录,连续涨停数则由乐凯新材保持,达30个。    卖手机这事,现在拼的还是品牌和线下渠道  雷军提到的“时间没有想象的那么多”,是因为中国智能手机的市场已经慢下来了。”张棣看来,面对压力,只有“开源节流”的方式可以抓住未来制造业成长的一些机遇,但其中的“节流”并不能提升整个企业的核心竞争能力,只有“开源”可以。

这是多么的没有新意、又是多么的低科技!  这代表着失去了理想和想象。【亿邦动力网讯】11月10日消息,今日美妆产品素野多肽赋活修护套装在电商平台云集微店上进行销售,15分钟销售量达2200万。目前商家货源充足,3种颜色可选(看上图),比电商还便宜,如上门商家包隐藏式走线安装。  12月7日电据中国外汇交易中心的最新数据显示,12月7日人民币对美元汇率中间价报6.8808元,较12月6日大幅下调233个基点。


-- Twenty years after the 9/11 terrorist attacks, widely seen as a turning point in U.S. history, the world's sole superpower has largely failed in its fight against terrorism and extremism.

-- Under the banner of a global "war on terror," Washington has plunged itself into a costly and frustrating quagmire of conflicts and strategic misjudgments, most recently marked by the chaotic and bloody withdrawal from Afghanistan.

-- As global security threats remain, the need for cooperation among major powers has become more urgent in order to effectively address such challenges as climate change and communicable disease.


by Yang Shilong, Matthew Rusling, Xu Yuan

WASHINGTON, Sept. 11 (Xinhua) -- Twenty years after the 9/11 terrorist attacks, widely seen as a turning point in U.S. history, the world's sole superpower has largely failed in its fight against terrorism and extremism.

Under the banner of a global "war on terror," experts have said, Washington has plunged itself into a costly, frustrating quagmire of conflicts and strategic misjudgments, most recently marked by the chaotic and bloody withdrawal from Afghanistan.

Photo taken on Aug. 31, 2021 shows a military plane at Kabul airport in Kabul, capital of Afghanistan. The U.S. Central Command announced on Aug. 30 that the withdrawal of U.S. troops from Afghanistan has completed. (Photo by Saifurahman Safi/Xinhua)

"ENDLESS WARS" COST U.S. MUCH MORE

"The damage done by Al-Qaeda pales compared to the damage we did to ourselves," Joseph S. Nye, dean emeritus of Harvard University's John F. Kennedy School of Government, told Xinhua in a recent interview.

By some estimates, nearly 15,000 American military members and contractors were killed, and the economic cost of the wars following 9/11 was more than 6 trillion U.S. dollars. "Adding to this, the numbers of foreign civilians killed, and refugees created, and the costs were enormous," Nye said.

"The opportunity costs were also large. When (then) President Barack Obama tried to pivot to Asia -- the fastest growing part of the world economy -- the legacy of the global war on terror kept the U.S. mired in the Middle East," Nye said.

"It is a mixed bag and our approaches initially were very costly, and the Middle East remains a mess. But the homeland has been fairly safe. On balance I'd say the glass is so slightly more than half full," Brookings Institution Senior Fellow Michael O'Hanlon told Xinhua.

During the 20 years since 9/11, other endless "wars of choice" besides Afghanistan were also initiated by the United States. Many of them are "illegal under international law" and "have rained death and destruction on hundreds of thousands of human beings in Southwest Asia, Middle East and the Arab world," said Sourabh Gupta, a senior fellow at the Institute for China-America Studies.

In 2003, then U.S. President George W. Bush launched a war in Iraq though there was no evidence that the country's Saddam Hussein government had been involved in the 9/11 attacks.

Iraqi protesters take part in a demonstration against the presence of U.S. troops in the country in Baghdad, capital of Iraq, Jan. 24, 2020. (Xinhua/Khalil Dawood)

With Washington later turning its head toward other issues, such as the 2007-2008 financial collapse, which led to a major U.S. recession, Bush's successor, Obama, officially ended the Iraq War in 2011.

According to the U.S. Department of Defense casualty website, the U.S. military registered a total of 4,431 deaths as a result of the Iraq War, with 31,994 wounded in action. The Iraqi casualties are far higher.

Apart from its tragic human toll, the Iraq War was shockingly expensive in financial terms. The true cost of the war is estimated at 3 trillion U.S. dollars, rather than the 50 billion dollars projected by the White House, according to a book co-authored by Nobel Prize-winning economist Joseph Stiglitz and Harvard professor Linda Bilmes.

"Terrorism still persists in Iraq, and it has crossed borders and become regional in the Middle East. We see what is happening in Syria and the countries of the region," said Hashim al-Shamma, a researcher in politics at the Iraqi Center for Legal Development, a non-governmental organization.

"The United States uses its counter-terrorism policy as an excuse to justify the failure of some of its policies," said the expert.

In addition to the two full-scale wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, Bush also waged a vast, global intelligence operation in a bid to hunt down and kill terrorists, as well as protect the United States from future attacks.

On May 2, 2011, Osama bin Laden, the alleged mastermind of the 9/11 terror attacks, was killed in a compound in Abbottabad, Pakistan, in a raid by a U.S. Navy special forces team.

But terrorism, as U.S. President Joe Biden conceded, has "metastasized across the world" despite U.S. efforts to stop it.

Many of the U.S. assessments on the Middle East are "highly incorrect," said Mostafa Amin, an Egyptian researcher on terrorism and also a columnist at Egypt's Rosa El Youssef newspaper.

"The United States greatly contributes to fueling the conflicts, internal crises and wars in the Middle East region," he said.

"U.S. counter-terror efforts have achieved their main goal of preventing a large-scale foreign terrorism attack on the U.S. homeland," William Courtney, a retired U.S. ambassador and now an adjunct senior fellow at U.S. think tank RAND Corporation, told Xinhua.

However, concerns remain, especially over a potential terrorist attack involving a weapon of mass destruction, Courtney said.

"On the U.S. side, the U.S. failed to recognize that historically, for a great power, invading Afghanistan has always cost far more than (what) the country is worth to hold, and that was America's 20-year mistake," Clay Ramsay, a researcher at the center for international and security studies at the University of Maryland, told Xinhua.


MOST DISASTROUS ERA OF U.S. FOREIGN POLICY

While the initial intent of the Afghanistan invasion was to kill or capture bin Laden, its mission developed gradually, experts said. Over the years, the United States had tried to set up U.S.-style democratic institutions in the country. And it failed.

Taliban members are seen on a military vehicle on the street in Kandahar city, southern Afghanistan, Sept. 1, 2021. (Photo by Sanaullah Seaim/Xinhua)

One part of the U.S. anti-terror strategy was founded on the supposedly "enlightened" idea that "if certain Muslim majority states could be converted into Western-style democracies, then the spawning ground of Islamic fanaticism would be subsumed by a modern Islam and in this way terrorism would be greatly reduced," Robert Lawrence Kuhn, chairman of the Kuhn Foundation told Xinhua.

This strategy was flawed partly because "the Western-style democracy was not suited to the cultural and religious traditions of these countries. Much American blood was spilled and treasure spent in failed missions in Iraq and Afghanistan that caused much suffering," Kuhn said.

He added that one geopolitical theme a historian of the future might characterize the past 20 years is "the end of the American vision of democratizing the world."

Gupta branded the last 20 years as "the ending of an age when America sought to remake the world to its image on the cheap."

"I would submit that the past 20 years, and more broadly the years since the end of the Cold War, will rank among the most disastrous eras in the history of U.S. foreign policy," he said.

Two decades after 9/11, "the world order is no better off and America certainly much poorer off -- reputationally and fiscally," Gupta said.

"The faith that America can naturally go from strength to strength economically, and that every successive generation of Americans can aspire to a better life, has taken a cold shower," Gupta said.

According to the expert, U.S. annual GDP growth registered an average of 3.9 percent over the last six decades of the 20th century.

"During the past two decades, it has struggled to break the 2-percent mark. And this is in spite of the federal government's debt-to-GDP ratio tripling in just 15 years and breaching the problematic 100-percent threshold," he said.

After the Cold War, the United States "could have chosen global leadership by consensus," but it chose to "impose on the world an America-dictated vision of order," Gupta said.

America had the world's sympathy and support after it was attacked, he said. "Yet, the U.S. pressed ahead into Afghanistan with its 'my way or the highway' style and has now departed Afghanistan again in its 'my way or the highway' style."


LESSONS TO BE DRAWN

"Looking ahead, when the next terrorist attacks come, will presidents be able to channel public demand for revenge by precise targeting, explaining the trap that terrorists set for us, and focusing on creating resilience in American responses?" Nye said.

"Twenty years after 9/11, these are the lessons we should be learning and the plans we should be making," he stressed.

As a counterfactual history of the past 20 years, imagine what the world would be like if (former) President Bush had avoided the tempting rallying cry of a global war on terror and responded to 9/11 by carefully selected military strikes combined with good intelligence and diplomacy, he suggested.

U.S. intelligence had failed to prevent the 9/11 attacks, analysts and historians said, because the U.S. intelligence community had failed to share information between various agencies.

As global security threats remain, the need for cooperation among major powers has become more urgent in order to effectively address such challenges as climate change and communicable disease, Courtney said.

According to Gupta, "two fundamental lessons" need to be drawn from the last two decades for better global governance.

First, "the age when America's shoulders were broad enough to carry the world economy and maintain global order single-handedly is decisively over," Gupta said.

"This requires all parties to rededicate themselves once again to a UN-centered global system," with more responsibility on major countries to make cooperation a success, he explained.

A COVID-19 disaster morgue made up of refrigerated trailers stands at the South Brooklyn Marine Terminal during the COVID-19 pandemic in the Brooklyn borough of New York, United States, Dec. 14, 2020. (Photo by Michael Nagle/Xinhua)

Second, global challenges like climate change and the COVID-19 pandemic require global solutions, he added. "At a time of flux in the international system, it is difficult to muster this cooperation -- given disagreements about the distribution of benefits and burdens."

"Yet, lacking this cooperation, all parties will decidedly be far worse off," he said. "And hence the systemic order must find ways to avoid the 'Kindleburger Trap' and instead ensure that the major incumbent powers and the major emerging powers, in concert and individually, provide their fair share of global public goods."

(Xinhua reporters Zhang Miao in Baghdad and Wu Danni in Cairo also contributed to the story.) (Video reporters: Hu Yousong, Tan Yixiao, Liu Pinran, Li Xiaopeng, Pan Geping, Shi Zhongyu, Zheng Yihan, Zhang Miao, Jiang Chao, Shi Xiantao, Wu Danni, Li Binian, Yang Yiran, Yu Fuqing; video editors: Liu Xiaorui, Chen Sihong, Zhang Yucheng, Yang Zhixiang)

KEY WORDS: US,9/11,Terrorism,XINHUA HEADLINES,9/11
EXPLORE XINHUANET
010020070750000000000000011102351310182221
申博免费开户官网登入 申博代理登录 菲律宾申博游戏登入 申博网址 百家乐支付宝充值 申博直营现金网
申博娱乐网官网 申博管理登入 申博太阳手机登陆 申博游戏平台登入 申博娱乐网登入 www.666sbo.com
申博官网登录 www.6699sun.com 菲律宾太阳城直营 太阳城管理网 www.168msc.com www.msc66.com